Crime and Corruption Before and After the Georgian Presidential Election of 2013
In 1990s, organized crime existed mainly as a nexus between political-criminal clans, gangs, and law enforcement agencies, all of which have been involved in various types of crime such as smuggling in narcotics, illegal arms trade, human trafficking, kidnapping foreign and local businessmen or their relatives for ransom. By 2003, corruption penetrated all sectors of Georgian society. Reform of the law enforcement system and the crackdown on organized crime and corruption was carried out after the Rose Revolution but the level of political corruption remained high. The parliamentary elections of 2012 and the presidential elections of 2013 improved the situation, though it is still not clear whether Georgia has gained a democratic government or a Mafiosi-style one.
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